On the back of recent iNform blogs about the positive effects of spending time in the outdoors amongst our blue and green spaces, I thought it would be great to pass on some of my favourites so that you can explore Adelaide’s trails and beaches
Green places (Adelaide’s trails):
- Hallett Cove Boardwalk: You’ll find the start of the boardwalk in Hallett Cove (or you can start at the other end in Seacliff), a 35 minute drive from Adelaide. The walk itself is a 10.2km return walk rated as a moderate hike. If you aren’t up to 10.2km, it’s very easy to walk as far as you wish and turn around. It’s a scenic walk along the clifftops of Marino and has numerous valleys and resultant stairs to climb. There are also several little paths in the valleys that you can explore to take you to the rugged beaches. You can find plenty of birdlife and if you’re lucky and have a good eye, some ocean life may show itself also. At the Hallett Cove end there is also a great café for lunch and.or a coffee after your walk.
- Kings beach to Waitpinga: A little further from Adelaide at a 75 minute drive, this little gem of a trail is one of the most scenic around. The rugged cliffs and coastline of Newland Head Conservation Park provides some amazing views. The trail itself is rated moderate and is 11.5km one way. Keep this in mind as you may need someone at the other end to pick you up if you choose to do the whole one way walk. Alternatively, you can walk just a part of it and turn around.
- Chambers Gully: Just a whisper away from the CBD at a 15 minute drive, Chambers Gully is Waterfall Gully’s little brother. The trail to Mt Lofty is a 15km circuit, rated hard hike with steep sections so make sure you are prepared if you are doing the full loop. If you want more of a casual walk, the first few kilometres of Chambers Gully are less strenuous and very scenic. There’s lots of wildlife to be seen if you keep your eyes open.
Blue Places Adelaide’s beaches):
- Port Noarlunga: I may be a bit biased about Port Noarlunga given I spent many days there growing up. But I’ll stand by my claims that it’s a top spot. It’s a 40 minute drive from Adelaide and has numerous activities available. You can hire snorkels and fins from SNUBA and go snorkelling out at the reef, or take the plunge and go SNUBA diving! (it’s a bit different to Scuba Diving). There is a jetty that will lead you out to the reef which you can also walk on and explore at low tide. If you take a short walk over to the river you can hire kayaks from Easy Kayak Rentals and have a cruisy paddle down the river. For those wanting to hit the waves, South Port Beach sits at the south end of Port Noarlunga and can often have a nice wave rolling in. Need a board? Preece’s Surf shop can help you out.
- Second Valley: A quaint little town on the coast about a 90 minute drive from Adelaide. Great spot on a nice day for some fishing, kayaking or just a swim. Don’t miss the walk around the bottom of the cliffs to explore a little more. There are some great other little beaches and places to explore if you are willing to have a look around.
- Port Willunga: Port Willunga is a quiet little town about a 50 minute drive from Adelaide. The beach itself sits in a bay and is a little protected from the elements. There is a lot of beach to spread out on and the cliffs that overlook the beach can be quite scenic. The Star Of Greece café sits at the top of the hill, named after an iron cargo ship that wrecked here in 1888. The wreck provides a great diving spot for keen divers. Snorkelling off the beach is also very accessible.
Bonus locations for the travellers out there:
- Innes National Park, Yorke Peninsula: If you like to travel, Innes National park is a wonderful place to visit. There is lots of historical walks, shipwrecks, surf breaks and protected bays to explore. You could easily spend a week there doing walks every day and not get bored.
- Stokes Bay, Kangaroo Island: This is literally a hidden beach. When driving into Stokes Bay you are greeted with a rocky bay and a boat ramp. If you care to find a park and do a little searching, there is a narrow path/cave that makes its way through and under rocks, opening up to a pristine white sand beach. There is a protected wading/swimming area for the little ones and if the conditions are right there can be a fantastic little left hand beach break for the keen surfer.
These really are just a handful of quality outdoor environments the Adelaide region has to offer. When it comes down to it, if you are outdoors and moving and enjoying it, then you are in a great place.
If you want to explore Adelaide’s trails and beaches more but feel you can’t due to injury or fitness levels. Come in and see us. We can get you on track (or in the water) in no time.
What do exercise and a diet high in fibre have in common? We’ve known for some time now that both of these are good for our gut health and decrease our risk of colon cancer. However, it seems as though there may something extra that fibre and exercise have in common, and it comes as a fatty acid called butyrate. This link between exercise, fibre and gut health will be explored, and you’ll see that the effects travel as far as the brain.
What actually is butyrate and what does it do?
Butyrate is a short chain fatty acid produced by our gut bacteria as they break down foods that are high in fibre. Resistant starches are a type of fibre, that are some of the best fuels for these butyrate producing bacteria (Bourassa 2016). These starches come in foods such as legumes, oats and starches that are cooked and cooled like potato and rice salads.
Now butyrate is an important fuel for the cells of our colon. In fact it supplies up to 70% of their energy (Bourassa 2016). Keeping your colon cells healthy is thought to be one of the reasons why higher butyrate levels decrease your risk of colon cancer by 50% (Matsumoto et al, 2008).
However, the benefits of butyrate go well beyond reducing our risk of colon cancer. This is because healthier gut membranes improve their integrity (how closely they bond together) allowing them to act as a better barrier, which has flow on effects to improving our immunity and reducing inflammation (Ji Wang et al, 2018).
What’s the evidence on exercise and gut health?
Most of the interest on the effect of exercise on butyrate levels started back in 2008. Matsumoto and colleagues showed that butyrate levels, and the bacteria that produce butyrate, were higher in rats that exercised versus a sedentary control.
In 2014 a group of Irish researchers found that professional rugby players had a greater diversity of gut microbiota than a group of sedentary controls (Clarke et al, 2014). However a signifiant limitation in this study was that professional athletes eat very differently than the general population. And these results could possibly be related to their diet and not their activity.
We had to wait until late last year when a group from the University of Illinois designed a study that looked at the impact of aerobic exercise on butyrate. Previously sedentary individuals were asked to exercise three times a week for a 6 week period (Allen et al 2017). What they found was that there is a link between butyrate, exercise, and gut health in humans.
Much like the rodent study back in 2008 they found that aerobic exercise increases the levels of butyrate along with the colonies of bacteria that produce butyrate. Interestingly this effect was most pronounced in lean subjects. The overweight group did still increase the colonies of the butyrate producing bacteria (not to the extent of the lean group) but they didn’t see an increase in butyrate levels in their stools.
Exercise and gut health can also improve your brain!
Now here is where it really gets interesting. The term “your gut is your second brain” has been well used over the last decade. This has been used to explain that the enteric nervous system of the gut is not only quite complex, but it also has the capacity to signal the brain via many neurotransmitters.
We know that butyrate can cross the blood brain barrier and it is well known to suppress HDAC (Histone deacetylase; Bourassa 2016). Now HDAC inhibitors will increase the expression of BDNF (Brain-derived neurotrophic factor) in the brain. This is important for memory and learning as BDNF is like fertiliser for the brain. It helps your brain cells grow in number and connections!
So where’s the research at?
An interesting experiment, albeit in mice, was published back in 2013 where mice were given an object recognition memory task that is usually not enough to form in either their short or long term memory (Intlekofer et al, 2013). They had a sedentary group and a group that was exercising 3 weeks before the task. They also had a sedentary and exercising group that was injected with butyrate.
The non-butyrate injected sedentary mice could not successfully remember the task 24 hours post initial exposure However, both the sedentary/butyrate injected group and the exercise group could. And when it came to remembering the task 7 days after the initial exposure, it was only the butyrate group that could.
It is important to know that the exercise group only did so for the 3 weeks leading up to the task, and not during the 7 days after the task. This highlights that to get the improved learning outcome, continual exercise exposure is needed.
This mechanism of increased BDNF release via butyrate is probably why we see that children who are fed a high fibre diet perform better in cognitive tasks than those on a low fibre diet (Bourassa 2016). And it could also be the reason why it shows promise in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases (Bourassa 2016).
We also know that aerobic exercise has an effect on increasing BDNF levels, and this may be why individuals have a 20% improvement in learning tasks (Winter et al, 2007). So it makes sense to eat a high fibre diet and exercise at the same time right?
Take home points about exercise and gut health:
- It appears as though aerobic exercise continues to benefit our health in many different ways, and improving our gut health is another reason to be active. Aerobic exercise of around 30 to 60 minutes a few times a week can give you this benefit to your gut.
- Improve the diversity of your microbiota through eating foods that are high in butyrate producing fibre such as legumes, oats and potato salads.
- Combine this with regular exercise to improve the butyrate production of your gut as this have effects that travel to your brain.
- And while there is still much more research to be done, it seems to indicate that by doing this you are improving your capacity to learn and remember things, along with decreasing your risk of developing neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s.
About the Author
Blue Mind: A mildly meditative state characterized by calm, peace, unity, and a sense of general happiness and satisfaction with life in the moment.
We can all agree that modern life is tough. We experience chronic stress, struggle with constant monkey mind and are probably all too familiar with directed attention fatigue. We live a lifestyle where we are “always on”, and this can eventually result in burn out, memory problems, poor judgement, anxiety, and depression. Physically, chronic stress damages the cardiovascular, immune, digestive, nervous and musculoskeletal systems. It does this by lowering levels of serotonin and dopamine (our neurotransmitters responsible for making us happy) and leaves us feeling exhausted and down. And yet, the knowledge that our lifestyles have some room for improvement is just another source of stress! “Red Mind” is a term coined by neuroscientist Catherine Franssen, and is described as an “edgy high, characterized by stress, anxiety, fear and maybe even a little bit of anger and despair”. Whilst Red Mind can have its perks and be healthy at times, like everything, it should be experienced in moderation. This blog will show you how exercise in water can provide a much needed balance to “red mind” for your mental health!
Our brains are wired to constantly scan for danger, which makes sense historically. But now we’re faced with busy streets and email alerts, not lions.
Our brains like being around water because there is a high degree of predictability. This allows the amygdala (an emotions centre of the brain) to relax. However, small disturbances such as waves breaking or birds flying past give enough sense of surprise that we receive a pleasurable hit of dopamine. Because of this simultaneous sameness and change, we get a soothing familiarity and stimulating novelty when we look over the water. It’s the perfect recipe for triggering a state of involuntary attention in which the brain’s default network, essential to creativity and problem solving, is activated.
Studies have even shown that being at the beach, where there is an abundance of negatively charged ions in the atmosphere, lowers blood lactate levels and elevates mood.
Blue looks good on you
‘So how do I access my Blue Mind?’ I hear you ask. There is a very fitting quote from poet Sylvia Plath; “There must be quite a few things that a hot bath won’t cure, but I don’t know many of them”.
It seems way too simple, but by simply being around, in, on or under water – we trigger our Blue Mind.
There are now studies that show being immersed in water reduces stress, partly by balancing the flux between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Or that taking a spa bath can significantly lower your salivary cortisol levels. Feeling anxious? Taking a hot 5-minute shower can measurably lower anxiety levels.
So… I can just drink mimosas next to the pool?
Technically yes. But! There’s an extra level of Zen that water can offer you. And the answer has something to do with Exercise.
We’re well aware of the wonderful things exercise does to our brain on a neuro-chemical level, like release endorphins and endocannabinoids (the brain’s natural cannabis-like substances), which reduce the brain’s response to stress and anxiety.
The feel-good effects of swimming have actually been assimilated to the “relaxation response” triggered by yoga. When we swim, our muscles are constantly stretching and relaxing, and this movement is accompanied by deep, rhythmic breathing. All of which put us in a quasi-meditative state. On top of this we have to use a level of cognitive effort to learn and coordinate swimming strokes. This cognitive and aerobic combination can provide the brain with the satisfying stress-reducing feeling of “flow”.
Meet the power couple – Exercise in water for mental health
So when you feel yourself getting stressed, tense and a bit tightly wound why not utilise the powerful effects of exercise AND water?
So why not go for a run along the beach each week? Or go for a swim at your local pool? You could even learn to surf with the kids next weekend? Or how about simply going fishing? Perhaps paddle-boarding is more your style?
With summer just around the corner many of us are starting to think about easing ourselves back into our old exercise routines. Whether it be to lose a couple of kilos, or to ensure we feel just more comfortable spending time at the beach, most are slowly starting to climb back into their running shoes or slide back onto their bike seats.
But what if I were to suggest that this type of exercise (as in exercise of the cardio variety) may not be the best way to promote changes in the way we look or feel? While it may go against somewhat ‘traditional recommendations’, strength training is an excellent means of exercise that can cause HUGE changes in the way we look. This makes it the perfect type of training to complement our cardiovascular exercise.
Strength training can help build lean muscle
A sentence I hear on a very regular basis when discussing training or body composition goals goes a little something like this: “I don’t want to get big and bulky, I just want to ‘tone’ up”. To be honest, this thought process is extremely common for those looking to get into the weights room seriously for the first time. Which is why I then proceed to explain that weight training will not make you ‘big and bulky.’ It is actually extremely difficult to put on large amounts of muscle mass (particularly for females).
*Just quickly, if you want reassurance that this is the case, take a look at 99% of regular gym goers. Many look fit and healthy, while very few look like professional bodybuilders (even despite their best efforts).
In fact, the ‘toned’ look that many train for is actually a matter of building some muscle while losing some fat, resulting in more visible muscle definition – pretty simple really. So with all this in mind, strength training builds muscle tissue, which is integral to making large changes in body composition.
Strength training can increase our metabolism
As an added bonus, the process of building muscle – no matter how small the amount – can have a huge impact on our ability to lose weight.
You see, muscle is highly metabolic tissue, meaning that it actually requires energy to survive (it uses the energy we obtain from food). With this in mind, by increasing the amount of muscle mass we have on our body (even slightly), we can increase the amount of energy we burn each and every day – irrespective of the exercise we perform that day!
By adding some lean muscle tissue you can literally increase the amount of energy you burn when you’re on the couch or at work – which makes it much easier to promote weight loss in both the short and long term.
All it takes is performing some form of strength training 2-3 times per week.
Strength training can help us burn a heap of energy
Now, in addition to increasing our metabolism, strength training is also an effective means of promoting weight loss as is quite taxing. Strength training is a challenging form of exercise, and as such performing a single session will use a heap of energy. But where strength training differs from more traditional forms of exercise, is that it has a slightly longer recovery period associated. It is commonly accepted that muscle takes anywhere between 24 and 72 hours to completely recover after a workout (this recovery time is dependent on the intensity and volume of work performed during that training session).
During this entire period, the body is using additional energy to recover from our workout.
As a result, strength training can help us lose weight by increasing our energy expenditure both during, and after, our training session.
Bonus: Strength training helps you function every single day.
While this isn’t necessarily related to making any changes in our body composition, it is still certainly a large positive!
Becoming stronger, and through this improving our ability to function on a day to day basis, is extremely rewarding. It not only provides a clear demonstration that all our hard work in the gym is paying off, but also makes life in a physical sense much easier.
Whether it means being able to move your own furniture, pick up children without a second thought, or bring your groceries in from the car in a single trip, it doesn’t really matter – getting stronger will help you in every aspect of your life.
Take away message
When it comes to bang for your buck exercise strength training is hands down our best option. It have some great effects on our body composition, it can also improve our strength and function – both of which are essential to improving ability to get through the day.
With this in mind, performing weight training 2-3 times per week is ideal to stimulate both large increases in strength and massive changes in body composition. If you have any questions (or maybe don’t know where to start), feel free to book in with us today, so you can draw a line in the sand and get started.
Dolezal, Brett A., et al. “Muscle damage and resting metabolic rate after acute resistance exercise with an eccentric overload.” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 32.7 (2000): 1202-1207.
Kraemer, William J., et al. “Effect of resistance training on women’s strength/power and occupational performances.” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 33.6 (2001): 1011-1025.
Staron, R. S., et al. “Skeletal muscle adaptations during early phase of heavy-resistance training in men and women.” Journal of applied physiology 76.3 (1994): 1247-1255.
Zurlo, Francesco, et al. “Skeletal muscle metabolism is a major determinant of resting energy expenditure.” Journal of Clinical Investigation 86.5 (1990): 1423.